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Historic and current racial discrimination in housing across the United States has created stubborn barriers to affordable rental housing and homeownership for millions of people who are underserved because of race, ethnicity, or geography.

Fannie Mae is tackling these obstacles as we continually work to create a fairer, more equitable housing system. As a leading provider of mortgage finance in the U.S., we are committed to helping power positive change.

Homeownership gap as of December 20211

1Fannie Mae computations from American Community Survey PUMS 1-year estimates, 2021

Join us in making real progress.

In the following data-driven Housing Journeys, we identify obstacles that may affect specific populations throughout their renting and homeownership experiences — and our solutions to help address those barriers every step along the way.

Real progress is possible, and it will take all of us.

Experience the Housing Journeys

The data from these Housing Journeys can help all of us identify specific areas where we can have the most impact. We encourage consumers as well as others working for change to explore and make use of the full set of research and data behind these Journeys.

Along the journey: An overview of obstacles

Here are obstacles frequently encountered by people historically undeserved because of race, ethnicity, or geography.

Financial realities

Research shows that compared to white households, Black and Latino households experience: higher debt-to-income ratios and higher housing cost burdens, creating a barrier to savings; limited funds for security deposits and down payments; fewer family resources for building wealth; and greater instances of lower credit scores and being credit invisible.

Lack of affordable housing

Supporting the construction and preservation of affordable housing is at the core of Fannie Mae’s mission. The supply of quality rental housing and affordable homes to buy in sustainable communities is seriously limited. We are working with partners to support innovative, effective solutions to these challenges across the U.S.

Bias and unequal access

Inequities create barriers for Black and Latino consumers as they go about obtaining affordable options in quality housing. They can encounter racial steering by real estate agents, mortgages and rentals denied at higher levels, higher costs and fees, and lower home value appreciations. Additionally, Black and Latino consumers experience higher rates of eviction or foreclosure.

Housing vulnerability

The U.S. has an aging housing stock, and Black and Latino consumers tend to purchase older homes. Black and Latino households tend to experience higher rates of housing repair needs, have fewer savings for post-purchase maintenance, and are disproportionately exposed to natural disasters and the effects of hazardous waste and climate impacts.